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What Is A Supercomputer?

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Researchers are beginning to use supercomputers to provide them with a better understanding of the relationship between the structure and function of the brain, and how the brain itself works.

Specifically, neuroscientists use supercomputers to look at the dynamic and physiological structures of the brain. Scientists are also working toward development of three-dimensional simulation programs that will allow them to conduct research on areas such as memory processing and cognitive recognition.

In addition to new applications, the future of supercomputing includes the assembly of the next generation of computational research infrastructure and the introduction of new supercomputing architectures.

Parallel supercomputers have many processors, distributed and shared memory, and many communications parts; we have yet to explore all of the ways in which they can be assembled.

Supercomputing applications and capabilities will continue to develop as institutions around the world share their discoveries and researchers become more proficient at parallel processing.

Karin, Sid, and Norris Parker Smith. The Supercomputer Era. Top Supercomputer Sites. University of Mannheim Germany and University of Tennessee.

San Diego Supercomputer Center. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. August 11, Retrieved August 11, from Encyclopedia.

Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.

A supercomputer is a powerful computer that possesses the capacity to store and process far more information than is possible using a conventional personal computer.

An illustrative comparison can be made between the hard drive capacity of a personal computer and a super-computer. Hard drive capacity is measured in terms of gigabytes.

A gigabyte is one billion bytes. A byte is a unit of data that is eight binary digits i. Premium personal computers have a hard drive that is capable of storing on the order of 30 gigabytes of information.

In contrast, a supercomputer has a capacity of to gigabytes or more. Another useful comparison between supercomputers and personal computers is in the number of processors in each machine.

A processor is the circuitry responsible for handling the instructions that drive a computer. Personal computers have a single processor. The largest supercomputers have thousands of processors.

This enormous computation power makes supercomputers capable of handling large amounts of data and processing information extremely quickly.

For example, in April , a Japanese supercomputer that contains 5, processors established a calculation speed record of 35, gigaflops a gigaflop is one billion mathematical calculations per second.

The Livermore supercomputer, which is equipped with over 7, processors, achieves 7, gigaflops. These speeds are a far cry from the first successful supercomputer, the Sage System CDC , which was designed by Seymour Cray founder of the Cray Corporation in His computer had a speed of 9 megaflops, thousands of times slower than the present day versions.

Still, at that time, the CDC was an impressive advance in computer technology. Beginning around , another approach to designing supercomputers appeared.

In grid computing, thousands of individual computers are networked together, even via the Internet. The combined computational power can exceed that of the all-in-one supercomputer at far less cost.

In the grid approach, a problem can be broken down into components, and the components can be parceled out to the various computers.

As the component problems are solved, the solutions are pieced back together mathematically to generate the overall solution.

The phenomenally fast calculation speeds of the present day supercomputers essentially corresponds to "real time," meaning an event can be monitored or analyzed as it occurs.

For example, a detailed weather map, which would take a personal computer several days to compile, can be complied on a supercomputer in just a few minutes.

Supercomputers like the Japanese version are built to model events such as climate change, global warming , and earthquake patterns.

Increasingly, however, supercomputers are being used for security purposes such as the analysis of electronic transmissions i.

For example, a network of supercomputers and satellites that is called Echelon is used to monitor electronic communications in the United States , Canada , United Kingdom , Australia , and New Zealand.

The CM-1 used as many as 65, simplified custom microprocessors connected together in a network to share data. Several updated versions followed; the CM-5 supercomputer is a massively parallel processing computer capable of many billions of arithmetic operations per second.

It was mainly used for rendering realistic 3D computer graphics. The Paragon was a MIMD machine which connected processors via a high speed two dimensional mesh , allowing processes to execute on separate nodes, communicating via the Message Passing Interface.

Software development remained a problem, but the CM series sparked off considerable research into this issue. But by the mids, general-purpose CPU performance had improved so much in that a supercomputer could be built using them as the individual processing units, instead of using custom chips.

By the turn of the 21st century, designs featuring tens of thousands of commodity CPUs were the norm, with later machines adding graphic units to the mix.

Systems with a massive number of processors generally take one of two paths. In the grid computing approach, the processing power of many computers, organised as distributed, diverse administrative domains, is opportunistically used whenever a computer is available.

In such a centralized massively parallel system the speed and flexibility of the interconnect becomes very important and modern supercomputers have used various approaches ranging from enhanced Infiniband systems to three-dimensional torus interconnects.

High-performance computers have an expected life cycle of about three years before requiring an upgrade. A number of "special-purpose" systems have been designed, dedicated to a single problem.

Throughout the decades, the management of heat density has remained a key issue for most centralized supercomputers. For example, Tianhe-1A consumes 4.

Heat management is a major issue in complex electronic devices and affects powerful computer systems in various ways.

The supercomputing awards for green computing reflect this issue. The packing of thousands of processors together inevitably generates significant amounts of heat density that need to be dealt with.

The Cray 2 was liquid cooled , and used a Fluorinert "cooling waterfall" which was forced through the modules under pressure.

In , Roadrunner by IBM operated at 3. Because copper wires can transfer energy into a supercomputer with much higher power densities than forced air or circulating refrigerants can remove waste heat , [74] the ability of the cooling systems to remove waste heat is a limiting factor.

Since the end of the 20th century, supercomputer operating systems have undergone major transformations, based on the changes in supercomputer architecture.

Since modern massively parallel supercomputers typically separate computations from other services by using multiple types of nodes , they usually run different operating systems on different nodes, e.

While in a traditional multi-user computer system job scheduling is, in effect, a tasking problem for processing and peripheral resources, in a massively parallel system, the job management system needs to manage the allocation of both computational and communication resources, as well as gracefully deal with inevitable hardware failures when tens of thousands of processors are present.

Although most modern supercomputers use a Linux -based operating system, each manufacturer has its own specific Linux-derivative, and no industry standard exists, partly due to the fact that the differences in hardware architectures require changes to optimize the operating system to each hardware design.

The parallel architectures of supercomputers often dictate the use of special programming techniques to exploit their speed.

Significant effort is required to optimize an algorithm for the interconnect characteristics of the machine it will be run on; the aim is to prevent any of the CPUs from wasting time waiting on data from other nodes.

Moreover, it is quite difficult to debug and test parallel programs. Special techniques need to be used for testing and debugging such applications.

Opportunistic Supercomputing is a form of networked grid computing whereby a "super virtual computer" of many loosely coupled volunteer computing machines performs very large computing tasks.

Grid computing has been applied to a number of large-scale embarrassingly parallel problems that require supercomputing performance scales.

However, basic grid and cloud computing approaches that rely on volunteer computing cannot handle traditional supercomputing tasks such as fluid dynamic simulations.

The fastest grid computing system is the distributed computing project Folding home F h. F h reported 2. Quasi-opportunistic supercomputing is a form of distributed computing whereby the "super virtual computer" of many networked geographically disperse computers performs computing tasks that demand huge processing power.

However, quasi-opportunistic distributed execution of demanding parallel computing software in grids should be achieved through implementation of grid-wise allocation agreements, co-allocation subsystems, communication topology-aware allocation mechanisms, fault tolerant message passing libraries and data pre-conditioning.

Cloud computing with its recent and rapid expansions and development have grabbed the attention of high-performance computing HPC users and developers in recent years.

Cloud computing attempts to provide HPC-as-a-service exactly like other forms of services available in the cloud such as software as a service , platform as a service , and infrastructure as a service.

HPC users may benefit from the cloud in different angles such as scalability, resources being on-demand, fast, and inexpensive.

On the other hand, moving HPC applications have a set of challenges too. Good examples of such challenges are virtualization overhead in the cloud, multi-tenancy of resources, and network latency issues.

Much research is currently being done to overcome these challenges and make HPC in the cloud a more realistic possibility.

The Penguin On Demand POD cloud is a bare-metal compute model to execute code, but each user is given virtualized login node. Penguin Computing has also criticized that HPC clouds may allocated computing nodes to customers that are far apart, causing latency that impairs performance for some HPC applications.

Supercomputers generally aim for the maximum in capability computing rather than capacity computing. Capability computing is typically thought of as using the maximum computing power to solve a single large problem in the shortest amount of time.

Often a capability system is able to solve a problem of a size or complexity that no other computer can, e. Capacity computing, in contrast, is typically thought of as using efficient cost-effective computing power to solve a few somewhat large problems or many small problems.

In general, the speed of supercomputers is measured and benchmarked in FLOPS "floating-point operations per second" , and not in terms of MIPS "million instructions per second , as is the case with general-purpose computers.

No single number can reflect the overall performance of a computer system, yet the goal of the Linpack benchmark is to approximate how fast the computer solves numerical problems and it is widely used in the industry.

The list does not claim to be unbiased or definitive, but it is a widely cited current definition of the "fastest" supercomputer available at any given time.

This is a recent list of the computers which appeared at the top of the TOP list, [] and the "Peak speed" is given as the "Rmax" rating. In , Lenovo became the world's largest provider for the TOP supercomputers with units produced.

The same research group also succeeded in using a supercomputer to simulate a number of artificial neurons equivalent to the entirety of a rat's brain.

Modern-day weather forecasting also relies on supercomputers. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration uses supercomputers to crunch hundreds of millions of observations to help make weather forecasts more accurate.

In , the challenges and difficulties in pushing the envelope in supercomputing were underscored by IBM 's abandonment of the Blue Waters petascale project.

The Advanced Simulation and Computing Program currently uses supercomputers to maintain and simulate the United States nuclear stockpile.

In early , Coronavirus was front and center in the world. Supercomputers used different simulations to find compounds that could potentially stop the spread.

These computers run for tens of hours using multiple paralleled running CPU's to model different processes.

Many Monte Carlo simulations use the same algorithm to process a randomly generated data set; particularly, integro-differential equations describing physical transport processes , the random paths , collisions, and energy and momentum depositions of neutrons, photons, ions, electrons, etc.

The next step for microprocessors may be into the third dimension ; and specializing to Monte Carlo, the many layers could be identical, simplifying the design and manufacture process.

The cost of operating high performance supercomputers has risen, mainly due to increasing power consumption. In the mid s a top 10 supercomputer required in the range of kilowatt, in the top 10 supercomputers required between 1 and 2 megawatt.

Supercomputing facilities were constructed to efficiently remove the increasing amount of heat produced by modern multi-core central processing units.

Based on the energy consumption of the Green list of supercomputers between and , a supercomputer with 1 exaflops in would have required nearly megawatt.

Operating systems were developed for existing hardware to conserve energy whenever possible. The increasing cost of operating supercomputers has been a driving factor in a trend toward bundling of resources through a distributed supercomputer infrastructure.

National supercomputing centers first emerged in the US, followed by Germany and Japan. The European Union launched the Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe PRACE with the aim of creating a persistent pan-European supercomputer infrastructure with services to support scientists across the European Union in porting, scaling and optimizing supercomputing applications.

Located at the Thor Data Center in Reykjavik , Iceland, this supercomputer relies on completely renewable sources for its power rather than fossil fuels.

The colder climate also reduces the need for active cooling, making it one of the greenest facilities in the world of computers. Funding supercomputer hardware also became increasingly difficult.

In the mid s a top 10 supercomputer cost about 10 million Euros, while in the top 10 supercomputers required an investment of between 40 and 50 million Euros.

In the UK the national government funded supercomputers entirely and high performance computing was put under the control of a national funding agency.

Germany developed a mixed funding model, pooling local state funding and federal funding. Many science fiction writers have depicted supercomputers in their works, both before and after the historical construction of such computers.

Much of such fiction deals with the relations of humans with the computers they build and with the possibility of conflict eventually developing between them.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 31 August For narrower definitions of HPC, see high-throughput computing and many-task computing.

For other uses, see supercomputer disambiguation. Extremely powerful computer for its era. Main article: History of supercomputing. Main articles: Supercomputer architecture and Parallel computer hardware.

See also: Computer cooling and Green Main article: Supercomputer operating systems. Main article: Message passing in computer clusters.

See also: Parallel computing and Parallel programming model. Main article: Grid computing. Main article: Quasi-opportunistic supercomputing.

Main article: TOP Further information: List of fastest computers and History of supercomputing. This section is in list format, but may read better as prose.

Common applications for supercomputers include testing mathematical models for complex physical phenomena or designs, such as climate and weather , evolution of the cosmos , nuclear weapons and reactors, new chemical compounds especially for pharmaceutical purposes , and cryptology.

As the cost of supercomputing declined in the s, more businesses began to use supercomputers for market research and other business-related models.

Supercomputers have certain distinguishing features. Unlike conventional computers, they usually have more than one CPU central processing unit , which contains circuits for interpreting program instructions and executing arithmetic and logic operations in proper sequence.

The use of several CPUs to achieve high computational rates is necessitated by the physical limits of circuit technology. Electronic signals cannot travel faster than the speed of light , which thus constitutes a fundamental speed limit for signal transmission and circuit switching.

This limit has almost been reached, owing to miniaturization of circuit components, dramatic reduction in the length of wires connecting circuit boards, and innovation in cooling techniques e.

Rapid retrieval of stored data and instructions is required to support the extremely high computational speed of CPUs.

Still another distinguishing characteristic of supercomputers is their use of vector arithmetic—i. For example, a typical supercomputer can multiply a list of hourly wage rates for a group of factory workers by a list of hours worked by members of that group to produce a list of dollars earned by each worker in roughly the same time that it takes a regular computer to calculate the amount earned by just one worker.

Supercomputers were originally used in applications related to national security, including nuclear weapons design and cryptography. Today they are also routinely employed by the aerospace, petroleum, and automotive industries.

In addition, supercomputers have found wide application in areas involving engineering or scientific research, as, for example, in studies of the structure of subatomic particles and of the origin and nature of the universe.

Supercomputers have become an indispensable tool in weather forecasting: predictions are now based on numerical models.

As the cost of supercomputers declined, their use spread to the world of online gaming. In particular, the 5th through 10th fastest Chinese supercomputers in were owned by a company with online rights in China to the electronic game World of Warcraft , which sometimes had more than a million people playing together in the same gaming world.

Although early supercomputers were built by various companies, one individual, Seymour Cray , really defined the product almost from the start. The Cray-designed CDC was one of the first computers to replace vacuum tubes with transistors and was quite popular in scientific laboratories.

Each time he moved on, his former company continued producing supercomputers based on his designs. Cray was deeply involved in every aspect of creating the computers that his companies built.

In particular, he was a genius at the dense packaging of the electronic components that make up a computer. By clever design he cut the distances signals had to travel, thereby speeding up the machines.

He always strove to create the fastest possible computer for the scientific market, always programmed in the scientific programming language of choice FORTRAN , and always optimized the machines for demanding scientific applications—e.

Lecture Notes in Physics. Superconducting Super Collider. Network architecture Learn To Fly 2 Cheats protocol Network components Network scheduler Network performance evaluation Network service. Related Topics personal digital assistant. E-commerce Enterprise software Computational mathematics Computational physics Computational chemistry Computational biology Computational social science Computational engineering Computational healthcare Digital art Electronic publishing Cyberwarfare Electronic voting Video games Word processing Operations research Educational technology Document management. The IBM used transistorsmagnetic core memory, pipelined instructions, prefetched Online Live Blackjack through a memory controller and included pioneering random access disk drives. Main article: Quasi-opportunistic supercomputing. Computer sizes. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Supercomputers. Silicon transistors could Supercomputer Mieten faster and the overheating problem was solved by introducing refrigeration to the supercomputer design. Supercomputer Mieten

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